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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Design of Fused-Deposition ABS Components for Stiffness and Strength

[+] Author and Article Information
José F. Rodrı́guez

Departamento de Mecánica, Universidad Simón Bolı́var, Caracas, Venezuela

James P. Thomas

Multifunctional Materials Branch, Code 6350, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375

John E. Renaud

Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556

J. Mech. Des 125(3), 545-551 (Sep 04, 2003) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1582499 History: Received August 01, 2000; Revised October 01, 2002; Online September 04, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

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Thomas, J. P., and Rodrı́guez, J. F., 2000, “Modeling the Fracture Strength Between Fused-Deposition Extruded Roads,” Proceedings of the 11th Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, TX.
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Rodrı́guez,  J. F., Thomas,  J. P., and Renaud,  J. E., 2000, “Characterization of the Mesostructure of Fused Deposition Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Materials,” Rapid Prototyping Journal,6(3), pp. 175–186.
Rodrı́guez, J. F., Thomas, J. P., and Renaud, J. E., 1999, “Maximizing the Strength of Fused Deposition ABS Plastic Parts,” Proceedings 10th Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, TX, pp. 335–342.
Rodrı́guez, J. F., Thomas, J. P., and Renaud, J. E., 1999, “Tailoring the Mechanical Properties of Fused-Deposition Manufactured Components,” Proceedings of the Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing Conference, Vol. 3, SME, Dearborn, MI, pp. 629–643.
Jones, R. M., 1999, Mechanics of Composite Materials, 2nd Edition, Taylor & Francis, Philadelphia, PA.
Caruso,  J. J., and Chamis,  C. C., 1986, “Assessment of Simplified Composite Micromechanics Using Three Dimensional Finite Element Analysis,” J. Compos. Technol. Res., 8(3), pp. 77–83.
Duvaut, G., 1983, “Homogenization et Materiaux Composites,” Trends and Applications of Pure Mathematics to Mechanics: Lecture Notes in Physics, Vol. 195, P. G. Ciarlet and M. Roseau, eds., Springer-Verlag, pp. 35–62.
Rodrı́guez, J. F., 1999, “Modeling the Mechanical Behavior of Fused Deposition Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Polymer Components,” Doctoral Dissertation, University of Notre Dame, Aerospace & Mechanical Engineering Department, Notre Dame, IN.
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Figures

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Idealized mesostructures for unidirectional laminate FD-ABS materials. The fiber extrusion plane is defined by the 1–2 coordinate axes.
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Orientation of a part relative to the FD machine. The XYZ coordinate system is attached to the machine and the xyz system to the part. The angles α and β locate the extrusion plane normal (i.e., the Z-axis) relative to the part, and θ characterizes the extrusion direction within the layering plane.
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Mechanical performance optimizer tool for Fused-Deposition parts
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Cross-section micrograph of the FD-ABS mesostructure in the aligned configuration. The white “elliptical” areas are ABS fibers and the dark “triangular” areas are voids.
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Stress-strain response for P400 ABS feedstock material for the FD machine and FD-ABS specimens loaded parallel (long) or perpendicular (trans) to the fiber extrusion direction
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Strength versus load-to-fiber angle for unidirectional, FD-ABS specimens
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Two-section cantilevered beam geometry for the FD-ABS optimization problem
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The displacement constraint, g1, (vertical axis) plotted as a function of θ1 and θ2 for F=30 N/cm2. Recall that g1 is the difference between the 9 mm displacement limit and the maximum spatial displacement considering all points on the hangar. The larger the value of g1, the smaller the value of the maximum displacement.
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The FS constraint, g2, (vertical axis) as a function of θ1 and θ2 for F=30 N/cm2. Recall that g2 is the difference between the computed Factor of Safety against yielding and 1.2 for all points on the hangar. The larger the value of g2, the smaller the value of the maximum von-Mises stress.
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Contour plot of the FS constraint, g2, as a function of θ1 and θ2 for F=30 N/cm2. The X represents the optimum points found by the optimization algorithm.
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Optimization iteration-history plot for the maximum allowable force, F, for the starting point {F,θ12}={100,90,90}

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