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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Initial Estimates in the Design of Central-Lever Steering Linkages

[+] Author and Article Information
P. A. Simionescu

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849e-mail: pasimi@eng.auburn.edu

M. R. Smith

Dept. of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UKe-mail: m.r.smith@ncl.ac.uk

J. Mech. Des 124(4), 646-651 (Nov 26, 2002) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1505853 History: Received January 01, 2000; Online November 26, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Rao,  R., 1968, “Steering Linkage Design. A Method of Determining the Configuration of the Steering Linkage so that the Geometry Conforms to Ackermann Principle,” Automot. Eng., 58, pp. 31–33.
Lukin, P., Gasparyants, G., and Rodionov, V., 1989, “Automobile Chassis. Design and Calculation,” Mir, Moscow.
Simionescu, P. A., and Beale, D., 2002, “Optimum Synthesis of the Four-Bar Function Generator in its Symmetric Embodiment: The Ackermann Steering Linkage,” Mech. Mach. Theory (to appear).
Duditza, Fl., and Alexandru, P., 1975, “Synthesis of the Seven-Joint Space Mechanism Used in the Steering System of Road Vehicles,” Proc. of The 5th World Congress on the Theory of Machines and Mechanisms, Newcastle upon Tyne, pp. 697-702.
Ardayfio,  D. D., and Qiao,  D., 1987, “Analytical Design of Seven-Joint Spatial Steering Mechanisms,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 22, pp. 315–319.
Simionescu,  P. A., and Smith,  M. R., 2000, “Applications of Watt II Function Generator Cognates,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 35, pp. 1535–1549.
Simionescu, P. A., and Alexandru, P., 1995, “Synthesis of Function Generators Using the Method of Increasing the Degree of Freedom of the Mechanism,” Proc. of The 9th World Congress on the Theory of Machines and Mechanisms, Milan, Vol. 1, pp. 139-143.
Kurien,  Isaac K., 1993, “A Nondiferentiable Optimization Algorithm for Constrained Minimax Linkage Function Generation,” ASME J. Mech Des., 115, pp. 978–987.
Reimpell, J., and Stoll, H., 1996, The Automotive Chassis: Engineering Principles, Arnold, London.
Brent, R. P., 2002, Algorithms of Minimisation Without Derivatives, Dover, New York.

Figures

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The central-lever steering linkage (also known as bell-crank steering mechanism)
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Triple-joint planar central-lever steering linkage in the reference position
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Overconstrained mechanism showing that the transmission function of an adjacent-joint central-level mechanism (a bell crank mechanism) can be exactly reproduced by a triple-joint variant of the same
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2 DOF associated mechanism used in the definition of objective functions F1 and F2
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3D plots of the objective function F2 in case of lC/l=1.25 (a) and lC/l=−1.25 (b), and for l=0.16 and Wb/Wt=1.9
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3D plots similar to Fig. 5(a) and (b) respectively, corresponding to an objective function equal to the maximum norm of the steering error
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Parametric design chart for trailing central-lever steering linkages with outer central lever (1: Wb/Wt=1.4; 3: Wb/Wt=1.9; 5: Wb/Wt=2.4)
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Parametric design chart for trailing central-lever steering linkages with inner central lever (1: Wb/Wt=1.4; 2: Wb/Wt=1.6; 3: Wb/Wt=1.9; 4: Wb/Wt=2.2; 5: Wb/Wt=2.4)
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Parametric design chart for leading central-lever steering linkages with outer central lever (1: Wb/Wt=1.4; 3: Wb/Wt=1.9; 5: Wb/Wt=2.4)
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Parametric design chart for leading central-lever steering linkages with inner central lever (1: Wb/Wt=1.4; 2: Wb/Wt=1.6; 3: Wb/Wt=1.9; 4: Wb/Wt=2.2; 5: Wb/Wt=2.4)
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Design charts for a trailing linkage with no lC variation sensitivity
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Design charts for a leading linkage with no lC variation sensitivity
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Geometric transformations for obtaining a bell-crank cognate mechanism of a triple-joint central lever mechanism

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