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Research Papers

The Cardiolock Project: Design of an Active Stabilizer for Cardiac Surgery

[+] Author and Article Information
Wael Bachta

 ISIR Université Pierre et Marie Curie – CNRS,Paris 75005, France e-mail: wael.bachta@upmc.fr

Pierre Renaud1

LSIIT  Université de Strasbourg – CNRS – INSA, Strasbourg 67000, Francepierre.renaud@insa-strasbourg.fr

Edouard Laroche

LSIIT  Université de Strasbourg – CNRS – INSA, Strasbourg 67000, Francelaroche@unistra.fr

Jacques Gangloff

LSIIT  Université de Strasbourg – CNRS – INSA, Strasbourg 67000, Francejacques.gangloff@unistra.fr

1

Corresponding author.

J. Mech. Des 133(7), 071002 (Jul 01, 2011) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004117 History: Received July 05, 2010; Revised April 13, 2011; Published July 01, 2011; Online July 01, 2011

Coronary artery bypass grafting is a common surgical procedure that requires a high level of accuracy. To perform this procedure on a beating heart, surgeons reduce the heart motion with passive stabilizers. These devices, however, lack accuracy. Indeed, marked residual motion of the area of interest can be observed. In this paper, we address the problem with the design of an active stabilizer, i.e., an active mechanism controlled to cancel any residual motion during the surgery. The design methodology is based on dynamic modeling of the stabilization task and an iterative design approach. In fact, Cardiolock 1, a prototype allowing partial compensation, has first been developed in order to refine the design requirements. Its design and evaluation are presented, before introducing Cardiolock 2, a device with full stabilization capabilities. It includes a remote center of motion and takes advantage of the vicinity of kinematic singularities to provide mechanical amplification. Numerical and experimental analyses of the device are introduced, illustrating the practical potential of the proposed design.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

The Medtronic Octopus TE. On the figure, the stabilizer tip is equipped with LEDs for an experimental evaluation on pigs of the residual displacements [7].

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Figure 2

Illustration of the principle of active compensation in the case of a bending of the stabilizer shaft

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Figure 3

Schematic representation of the active stabilizer set-up

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Figure 4

Actuator for the compensation (left) and modeling of the task (right)

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Figure 5

Slider-crank mechanism for the Cardiolock 1 transformation mechanism

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Figure 6

CAD view of the the Cardiolock 1 prototype

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Figure 7

FEA of Cardiolock 1: The maximum displacement of the actuator is applied simultaneously to a 6 N force on the stabilizer shaft. Displacements, indicated in mm, are amplified for sake of clarity.

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Figure 8

Cardiolock 1 prototype during the experimental evaluation

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Figure 9

Cardiolock 1 tip displacement as a function of the control voltage

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Figure 10

Kinematic scheme of the serial architecture of Cardiolock 2

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Figure 11

Planar 3PRR close to parallel singularity

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Figure 12

Dimensions in millimeters of the transformation mechanism and the compliant prismatic joint

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Figure 13

CAD view of the Cardiolock 2 device

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Figure 14

Exploded view of Cardiolock 2

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Figure 15

Global view of the Cardiolock 2 device

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Figure 16

Displacements of the Cardiolock 2 shaft tip in the camera frame for input voltages equal to 3 V (position in millimeters, voltage values indicated into brackets for the two joints)

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