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TECHNICAL PAPERS

On the Kinematic Error in Harmonic Drive Gears

[+] Author and Article Information
Fathi H. Ghorbel, Prasanna S. Gandhi

Department of Mechanical Engineering Rice University, 6100 Main St.-MS 321 Houston, Texas 77005

Friedhelm Alpeter

Institut d’automatique École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

J. Mech. Des 123(1), 90-97 (Oct 01, 1998) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1334379 History: Received October 01, 1998
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
Topics: Errors , Gears , Plasticity , Stress
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References

Harmonic Drive Technologies, Peabody, MA, 1995, HDC Cup Component Gear Set Selection Guide.
Musser, C., 1955, “Strain Wave Gearing,” United States Patent Number 2,906,143.
Musser, C., 1960, “Breakthrough in Mechanical Drive Design: The Harmonic Drive,” Mach. Des. pp. 160–172 (Research Adviser for the United Shoe Machinery Corp., Boston, MA).
Emel’yanov,  A., , 1983, “Calculation of the Kinematic Error of a Harmonic Gear Transmission Taking into Account the Compliance of Elements,” Sov. Eng. Res., 3, No. 7, pp. 7–10.
Klypin,  A., , 1985, “Calculation of the Kinematic Error of a Harmonic Drive on a Computer,” Sov. Eng. Res., 5, No. 11, pp. 9–12.
Shuvalov,  S., 1974, “Calculation of Harmonic Drives with Allowance for Pliancy of Links,” Russ. Eng. J. 54, No. 6, pp. 47–52.
Seyfferth, W., and Angeles, J., 1995, “A Mechanical Model for Robotic Joints with Harmonic Drives,” Technical Report, McGill University Department of Mechanical Engineering & Centre for Intelligent Machines, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. TR-CIM-94-13.
Seyfferth, W., Maghzal, A., and Angeles, J., 1995, “Nonlinear Modeling and Parameter Identification of Harmonic Drive Gear Transmissions,” Proc. of the 32nd IEEE Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 3027–3032.
Kircanski, N., Goldenberg, A., and Jia, S., 1993, “An Experimental Study of Nonlinear Stiffness, Hysteresis, and Friction Effects in Robot Joints with Harmonic Drives and Torque Sensors,” Proc. of the 3rd International Symposium on Experimental Robotics, pp. 327–340.
Hidaka, T., Ishida, T., Zhang, Y., Sassahara, M., and Tanioka, Y., 1990, “Vibration of a Strain Wave Gearing in an Industrial Robot,” Proc. of the 1990 International Power Transmission and Gearing Conference—New Technology Power Transmission, pp. 789–794.
Sakuta,  H., Yoshitani,  Y., and Yonezawa,  T., 1988, “Vibration Absorption Control of Robot Arm by Software Servomechanism-2nd report,” Nihai Kikkai Gakk. Ronbun., 54, No. 197, pp. 217–220. (In Japanese).
Hashimoto, M., 1989, “Robot Motion Control Based on Joint Torque Sensing,” Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 256–261.
Tuttle,  T., 1992, “Understanding and Modeling the Behavior of a Harmonic Drive Gear Transmission,” Master’s Thesis, MIT. MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Technical Report No. 1365.
Tuttle, T., and Seering, W., 1993, “Kinematic Error, Compliance, and Friction in a Harmonic Drive Gear Transmission,” The 1993 ASME Design Technical Conferences—19th Design Automation Conference, pp. 319–324.
Nye, T., and Kraml, R., 1991, “Harmonic Drive Gear Error: Characterization and Compensation for Precision Pointing and Tracking,” Proc. of the 25th Aerospace Mechanics Symposium, pp. 237–252.
Hsia, L., 1988, “The Analysis and Design of Harmonic Gear Drives,” Proc. of the 1988 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, pp. 616–619.
Ramson, R., 1988, “Positional Error Analysis of Harmonic Drive Gearing,” Master’s Thesis, Clemson University.
Were,  M., and Ghorbel,  F., 1997, “Analysis and Control of Kinematic Error in Harmonic Gear Drive Mechanisms.” Internal Report ATP96-1, Dynamic Systems and Control Laboratory, Rice University Department of Mechanical Engineering.
Hejny, S., and Ghorbel, F., 1997, “Harmonic Drive Test Apparatus for Data Acquisition and Control,” Internal Report ATP96-2, Dynamic Systems and Control Laboratory, Rice University Department of Mechanical Engineering.
Gandhi, P., and Ghorbel, F., 1999, “Closed Loop Compensation of Kinematic Error in Harmonic Drives for Precision Control Applications,” Proc. of the IEEE 37th Conference on Decision and Control, Arizona, pp. 5268–5270.
dSPACE Digital Signal Processing and Control Engineering GmbH, 1993, DSP-CITeco LD31/LD31NET User’s Guide.

Figures

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(a) Exploded and (b) assembled view of harmonic drive gear transmission (Harmonic Drive Technologies 1)
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Typical profile of the kinematic error
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Experimental measurement of basic component of the kinematic error
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Mechanism of occurrence of kinematic error due to assembly errors
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A schematic diagram of the Harmonic Drive Test Apparatus
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Mean Square Error (MSE) between simulated and experimental profiles
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Decomposition of the kinematic error: Experimental (dashed) and simulated (solid)
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Dependence of the kinematic error on torsional load
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Dependence of the kinematic error on assembly
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Dependence of the kinematic error on speed: Simulation (solid) and experimental (dotted) results
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View of the Harmonic Drive Test Apparatus
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Steady state stiffness curve of the harmonic drive system

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