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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Experimental and Numerical Investigations on the Influence of Tooth Friction in Spur and Helical Gear Dynamics

[+] Author and Article Information
P. Velex, V. Cahouet

Laboratoire de Mécanique des Contacts, UMR CNRS 5514, INSA de Lyon, Ba⁁t. 113, 20 Avenue Albert Einstein, 69 621 Villeurbanne Cédex, France

J. Mech. Des 122(4), 515-522 (Jul 01, 2000) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1320821 History: Received October 01, 1999; Revised July 01, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Crook,  A. W., 1961, “The Lubrication of Rollers III, A Theoretical Discussion of Friction and the Temperatures in the Oil Film,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, 254, pp. 237–258.
Dowson, D., and Higginson, G. R., 1966, Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication, Pergamon, Oxford, pp. 139–181.
Johnson,  K. L., and Cameron,  R., 1967, “Shear Behavior of Elastohydrodynamic Oil Films at High Rolling Contact Pressures,” Proc. ImechE, 182, Part 1, No. 14, pp. 307–319.
Dowson, D., 1967, “Elastohydrodynamics,” Proc. ImechE Conference on Lubrication and Wear, 182 , Part 3A, pp. 151–167.
Martin,  K. F., 1978, “A Review of Friction Predictions in Gear Teeth,” Wear, 49, pp. 201–238.
Benedict,  G. H., and Kelley,  B. W., 1961, “Instantaneous Coefficients of Gear Tooth Friction,” ASLE Trans. , 4, pp. 59–70.
Flamand,  L., Berthe,  D., and Godet,  M., 1981, “Simulation of Hertzian Contacts Found in Spur Gears with a High Performance Disk Machine,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 103, pp. 204–209.
Johnson,  K. L., and Spence,  D. I., 1991, “Determination of Gear Tooth Friction by Disc Machine,” Tribol. Int., 24, No. 5, pp. 269–275.
Radzimovsky,  E. I., Miraferi,  A., and Broom,  W. E., 1973, “Instantaneous Efficiency and Coefficient of Friction of an Involute Gear Drive,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 95, pp. 1131–1138.
Yoshizaki,  M., Naruse,  C., Nemoto,  R., and Haizuka,  S., 1991, “Study on Frictional Loss of Spur Gears (Concerning the Influence of Tooth Form, Load, Tooth Surface Roughness and Lubricating Oil),” Tribol. Trans., 31, No. 1, pp. 138–146.
Rebecchi, B., Oswald, F., and Townsend, D. P., 1996, “Measurement of Gear Tooth Dynamic Friction,” Proc. 7th ASME Int. Power Transmission and Gearing Conf., San Diego, pp. 355–363.
Wu,  S., and Cheng,  H. S., 1991, “A Friction Model of Partial-EHL Contacts and its Application to Power Loss in Spur Gears,” Tribol. Trans., 34, No. 3, pp. 398–407.
Houser, D. R., Bolze, V. M., and Graber, J. M., 1996, “Static and Dynamic Transmission Error Measurements and Predictions for Spur and Helical Gear Sets,” Proc. 7th ASME Int. Power Transmission and Gearing Conf., San Diego, pp. 365–372.
Börner,  J., and Houser,  D. R., 1996, “Friction and Bending Moments on Gear Noise Excitations,” SAE Trans., 105, No. 6, pp. 1669–1676.
Iida,  H., Tamura,  A., and Yamada,  Y., 1985, “Vibrational Characteristics of Friction Between Gear Teeth,” Bull. JSME, 28, No. 241, pp. 1512–1519.
Shing, T. K., Tsai, L. W., and Krishnaprasad, P. S., 1994, “Dynamic Model of a Spur Gear System with Backlash and Friction Consideration,” ASME Proc. Machine Elements and Machine Dynamics Conf., DE-Vol. 71, pp. 155–163.
Vedmar,  L., and Henriksson,  B., 1998, “A General Approach for Determining Dynamic Forces in Spur Gears,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 120, pp. 593–598.
Velex,  P., and Maatar,  M., 1996, “A Mathematical Model for Analyzing the Influence of Shape Deviations and Mounting Errors on Gear Dynamic Behavior,” J. Sound Vib., 191, No. 5, pp. 629–660.
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Figures

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Gear model (only the gear degrees of freedom are represented)
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Photograph of the test rig (spur gears) and sketch of the geared unit (with bearing labels)
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Bearing force measurement system
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Experimental and calculated bearing forces (spur gears). f1 refers to the law of Benedict and Kelley (1961), f2 refers to Kelley and Lemanski’s (1967); (a) Bearing GV 11 (upper curves: forces in the vertical direction (t⃗), lower curves: forces in horizontal direction (s⃗)); (b) Bearing PV 21 (upper curves: forces in the horizontal direction (s⃗), lower curves: forces in vertical direction (t⃗))
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Experimental and calculated bearing forces (helical gears). f1 refers to the law of Benedict and Kelley (1961), f2 refers to Kelley and Lemanski’s (1967), (a) Bearing GV 12 (upper curves: forces in the horizontal direction (s⃗), lower curves: forces in vertical direction (t⃗)) (b) Bearing PV 21 (upper curves: forces in the vertical direction (t⃗), lower curves: forces in horizontal direction (s⃗))
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(a)-Asymmetric bearing force distributions on the pinion shaft-Helical gears-Ωl0=50 rpm/Cm=255 Nm. (upper curves: forces in the horizontal direction (s⃗), lower curves: forces in vertical direction (t⃗)). Key as Figure 5 & 6. (b)-Asymmetric bearing force distributions on the gear shaft-Helical gears-Ω10=50 rpm/Cm=255 Nm. (upper curves: forces in the vertical direction (t⃗), lower curves: forces in horizontal direction (s⃗)). Key as Figures 5 & 6.
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Influence of friction on peak-to peak variations of bearing forces (Spur gears); (a) bearing GV12 and (b) bearing PV22
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Influence of friction on peak-to peak variations of transmission error (Spur gears)
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Influence of friction on peak-to peak variations of bearing forces (Helical gears); (a) bearing GV12 and (b) bearing PV22
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Influence of friction on peak-to peak variations of transmission error (Helical gears)

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