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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Initial Estimates in the Design of Rack-and-Pinion Steering Linkages

[+] Author and Article Information
P. A. Simionescu

Politehnica University of Bucharest, Dept. of Mechanism and Robot Theory, Spl. Independentei 313, 77206 Bucharest, Romania

M. R. Smith

University of Newcastle, Dept. of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK, e-mail: m.r.smith@ncl.ac.uk

J. Mech. Des 122(2), 194-200 (Mar 01, 2000) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.533560 History: Revised March 01, 2000; Received January 19, 2012
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Reimpell, J., and Stoll, H., 1996, The Automotive Chassis: Engineering Principles, Arnold Publishers, London.
Visa, I., and Alexandru, P., 1979, “Kinematic Synthesis of Variable Structure with Three Partial Degrees of Mobility,” Proceedings of 5th World Congress on the Theory of Machines and Mechanisms, Montreal, 1 , pp. 9–12.
Felzien,  M. L., and Cronin,  D. L., 1985, “Steering Error Optimization of the MacPherson Strut Automotive Front Suspension,” Mech. Mach. Theor., 20, pp. 17–26.
Zarak,  C. E., and Townsend,  M. A., 1983, “Optimal Design of Rack-and-Pinion Steering Linkages,” ASME J. Mech. Trans. Auto. Des., 105, pp. 220–226.
Wolfe,  W. A., 1959, “Analytical design of an Ackermann steering linkage,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 81, pp. 11–14.
Ramachandra,  R., 1968, “Steering Linkage Design: A Method of Determining the Configuration of the Steering Linkage so that the Geometry Conforms to Ackermann Principle,” Automobile Eng., 58, pp. 31–33.
Simionescu, P. A., and Smith, M. R., 1997, “A Note on Watt II Function Generators Cognates,” Mech. Mach. Theo., (submitted for publication).
Simionescu, P. A., and Alexandru, P., 1995 “Synthesis of Function Generators Using the Method of Increasing the Degree of Freedom of the Mechanism,” Proceedings of the Ninth World Congress on the Theory of Machines and Mechanisms, Milan, 1 , pp. 139–143.
Suh,  C. H., and Mecklenburg,  A. W., 1973, “Optimal Design of Mechanisms with the Use of Matrices and Least Squares,” Mech. Mach. Theor.,8, pp. 479–495.
Alizade,  R. I., Mohan Rao,  A. V., and Sandor,  G. N., 1975, “Optimum Synthesis of Four-Bar and Offset Slider-Crank Planar and Spatial Mechanism Using the Penalty Function Approach with Inequality and Equality Constraints,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 97, pp. 785–790.
Brent, R. P., 1972, Algorithms of Minimization without Derivatives, Prentice-Hall, New York.

Figures

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The central outrigger (a) and standard (b) rack-and-pinion steering linkage
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Simplified planar model of central outrigger steering linkage
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2 DOF associated mechanism used in formulating the synthesis problem
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3D plot of objective function f2 for the case of l=0.16 and Wb/Wt=1.9
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Trailing central outrigger steering linkage design chart (1: Wb/Wt=1.4; 2: Wb/Wt=1.6; 3: Wb/Wt=1.9; 4: Wb/Wt=2.2; 5: Wb/Wt=2.4)
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Maximum stroke and pressure angles for trailing central outrigger actuating element
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Leading central outrigger steering linkage design chart (1: Wb/Wt=1.4; 2: Wb/Wt=1.6; 3: Wb/Wt=1.9; 4: Wb/Wt=2.2; 5: Wb/Wt=2.4)
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Maximum stroke and pressure angles for leading central outrigger actuating element
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Planar model of standard rack-and-pinion steering linkages
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(a) and (b) Working models of the symmetrical version of the 3RT3R Watt II overconstrained mechanism, showing the kinematic similarity of the central outrigger and standard rack-and-pinion steering linkages
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Trailing rack-and-pinion steering linkage design chart (1: Wb/Wt=1.4; 3: Wb/Wt=1.9; 5: Wb/Wt=2.4)
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Maximum stroke and pressure angles for trailing rack-and-pinion actuating element (l=0.14)
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Leading rack-and-pinion steering linkage design chart (1: Wb/Wt=1.4; 3: Wb/Wt=1.9; 5: Wb/Wt=2.4)
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Maximum stroke and pressure angles for leading rack-and-pinion actuating element (l=0.14)

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