Research Papers: Design Theory and Methodology

Data-Driven Platform Design: Patent Data and Function Network Analysis

[+] Author and Article Information
Binyang Song

Engineering Product Development,
Singapore University of Technology and Design,
8 Somapah Road,
Singapore 487372
e-mail: Binyang_song@mymail.sutd.edu.sg

Jianxi Luo

Engineering Product Development,
Singapore University of Technology and Design,
8 Somapah Road,
Singapore 487372;
International Design Center,
Singapore University of Technology and Design,
8 Somapah Road,
Singapore 487372
e-mail: jianxi_luo@sutd.edu.sg

Kristin Wood

Engineering Product Development,
Singapore University of Technology and Design,
8 Somapah Road,
Singapore 487372;
International Design Center,
Singapore University of Technology and Design,
8 Somapah Road,
Singapore 487372
e-mail: kristinwood@sutd.edu.sg

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Design Theory and Methodology Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN. Manuscript received June 28, 2018; final manuscript received November 15, 2018; published online December 20, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Carolyn Seepersad.

J. Mech. Des 141(2), 021101 (Dec 20, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: MD-18-1499; doi: 10.1115/1.4042083 History: Received June 28, 2018; Revised November 15, 2018

A properly designed product-system platform seeks to reduce the cost and lead time for design and development of the product-system family. A key goal is to achieve a tradeoff between economy of scope from product variety and economy of scale from platform sharing. Traditionally, product platform planning uses heuristic and manual approaches and relies almost solely on expertise and intuition. In this paper, we propose a data-driven method to draw the boundary of a platform-system, complementing the other platform design approaches and assisting designers in the architecting process. The method generates a network of functions through relationships of their co-occurrences in prior designs of a product or systems domain and uses a network analysis algorithm to identify an optimal core–periphery structure. Functions identified in the network core co-occur cohesively and frequently with one another in prior designs, and thus, are suggested for inclusion in the potential platform to be shared across a variety of product-systems with peripheral functions. We apply the method to identify the platform functions for the application domain of spherical rolling robots (SRRs), based on patent data.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Pine, J. B. , 1993, Mass Customization: The New Frontier in Business Competition, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA.
Simpson, T. W. , Seepersad, C. C. , and Mistree, F. , 2001, “ Balancing Commonality and Performance Within the Concurrent Design of Multiple Products in a Product Family,” Concurr. Eng. Res. Appl., 9(3), pp. 177–190. [CrossRef]
Simpson, T. , 2003, “ Product Platform Design and Optimization: Status and Promise,” ASME Paper No. DETC2003/DAC-48717.
Ulrich, K. , 1995, “ The Role of Product Architecture in the Manufacturing Firm,” Res. Policy, 24(3), pp. 419–440. [CrossRef]
Meyer, M. H. , and Utterback, J. M. , 1993, “ The Product Family and the Dynamics of Core Capability,” Sloan Manage. Rev., 34(3), pp. 29–47. https://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/the-product-family-and-the-dynamics-of-core-capability/
Wilhelm, B. , 1997, “ Platform and Modular Concepts at Volkswagen—Their Effects on the Assembly Process,” Transforming Automobile Assembly, Springer, Berlin, pp. 146–156.
Ericsson, G. , and Anna, E. , 1999, Controlling Design Variants: Modular Product Platforms, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Dearborn, MI.
McGrath, M. E. , 1995, Product Strategy for High-Technology Companies: How to Achieve Growth, Competitive Advantage, and Increased Profits, Irwin Professional Publishing, Burr Ridge, IL.
Robertson, D. , and Ulrich, K. , 1998, “ Planning for Product Platforms,” Sloan Manag. Rev., 39(4), pp. 19–31. https://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/planning-for-product-platforms/
Simpson, T. W. , Siddique, Z. , and Jiao, J. , 2006, Product Platform and Product Family Design: Methods and Applications, Springer, New York.
Kurtadikar, R. M. , and Stone, R. B. , 2003, “ Investigation of Customer Needs Frequency vs. Weight in Product Platform Planning,” ASME Paper No. IMECE2003-42786.
Du, X. , Jiao, J. , and Tseng, M. M. , 2001, “ Architecture of Product Family: Fundamentals and Methodology,” Concurrent Eng., 9(4), pp. 309–325. [CrossRef]
Ulrich, K. T. , and Tung, K. , 1991, “ Fundamentals of Product Modularity,” Winter Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, Dec. 1–6, pp. 219–231.
Erlandsson, A. , Erixon, G. , and Ostgren, B. , 1992, “ Product Modules—The Link Between QFD and DFA,” International Forum on Product Design for Manufacture and Assembly, Newport, RI, June 15–16.
Yu, T.-L. , Yassine, A. A. , and Goldberg, D. E. , 2007, “ An Information Theoretic Method for Developing Modular Architectures Using Genetic Algorithms,” Res. Eng. Des., 18(2), pp. 91–109. [CrossRef]
Stone, R. B. , Wood, K. L. , and Crawford, R. H. , 2000, “ A Heuristic Method for Identifying Modules for Product Architectures,” Des. Stud., 21(1), pp. 5–31. [CrossRef]
Salhieh, S. M. , and Kamrani, A. K. , 1999, “ Macro Level Product Development Using Design for Modularity,” Robot. Comput. Integr. Manuf., 15(4), pp. 319–329. [CrossRef]
Hölttä, K. , Tang, V. , and Seering, W. P. , 2003, “ Modularizing Product Architectures Using Dendrograms,” 14th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED’ 03), Stockholm, Sweden, Aug. 19–21, pp. 343–344. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/37595148_Modularizing_Product_Architectures_Using_Dendrograms
Fixson, S. K. , 2005, “ Product Architecture Assessment: A Tool to Link Product, Process, and Supply Chain Design Decisions,” J. Oper. Manag., 23(3–4), pp. 345–369. [CrossRef]
Simpson, T. W. , 2004, “ Product Platform Design and Customization: Status and Promise,” AI EDAM, 18(1), pp. 3–20.
Messac, A. , Martinez, M. P. , and Simpson, T. W. , 2002, “ Effective Product Family Design Using Physical Programming,” Eng. Optim., 34(3), pp. 245–261. [CrossRef]
Fellini, R. , Kokkolaras, M. , Papalambros, P. Y. , and Perez-Duarte, A. , 2002, “ Platform Selection Under Performance Loss Constraints in Optimal Design of Product Families,” ASME Paper No. DETC2002/DAC-34099.
Nayak, R. U. , Chen, W. , and Simpson, T. W. , 2002, “ A Variation-Based Method for Product Family Design,” Eng. Optim., 34(1), pp. 65–81. [CrossRef]
Gonzalez-Zugasti, J. P. , Otto, K. N. , and Baker, J. D. , 2000, “ Method for Architecting Product Platforms,” Res. Eng. Des., 12(2), pp. 61–72. [CrossRef]
Simpson, T. , Maier, J. , and Mistree, F. , 1999, “ A Product Platform Concept Exploration Method for Product Family Design,” ASME Paper No. DETC99/DTM-8761.
Conner, C. , De Kroon, J. , and Mistree, F. , 1999, “ A Product Variety Tradeoff Evaluation Method for a Family of Cordless Drill Transmissions,” ASME Paper No. DETC99/DAC-8625.
Fellini, R. , Papalambros, P. , and Weber, T. , 2000, “ Application of a Product Platform Design Process to Automotive Powertrains,” AIAA Paper No. 2000-4849. https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/77031/AIAA-2000-4849-139.pdf?sequence=1
Kokkolaras, M. , Fellini, R. , Kim, H. M. , Michelena, N. F. , and Papalambros, P. Y. , 2002, “ Extension of the Target Cascading Formulation to the Design of Product Families,” Struct. Multidiscip. Optim., 24(4), pp. 293–301. [CrossRef]
Seepersad, C. C. , Hernandez, G. , and Allen, J. K. , 2000, “ A Quantitative Approach to Determining Product Platform Extent,” ASME Paper No. DETC2000/DAC-14288.
Gonzalez-Zugasti, J. P. , and Otto, K. N. , 2000, “ Modular Platform-Based Product Family Design,” ASME Paper No. DETC-2000/DAC-14238.
Fujita, K. , and Yoshida, H. , 2004, “ Product Variety Optimization Simultaneously Designing Module Combination and Module Attributes,” Concurrent Eng., 12(2), pp. 105–118.
D'Souza, B. , and Simpson, T. W. , 2003, “ A Genetic Algorithm Based Method for Product Family Design Optimization,” Eng. Optim., 35(1), pp. 1–18. [CrossRef]
Simpson, T. W. , and D'Souza, B. S. , 2004, “ Assessing Variable Levels of Platform Commonality Within a Product Family Using a Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm,” Concurrent Eng. Res. Appl., 12(2), pp. 119–129. [CrossRef]
Fellini, R. , Kokkolaras, M. , Papalambros, P. , and Perez-Duarte, A. , 2005, “ Platform Selection Under Performance Bounds in Optimal Design of Product Families,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 127(4), pp. 524–535. [CrossRef]
Yearsley, J. D. , and Mattson, C. A. , 2008, “ Product Family Member and Platform Identification With Concurrent Variable and Objective Space Smart Pareto Filtering,” AIAA Paper No. 2008-2220.
Moon, S. K. , Park, K. J. , and Simpson, T. W. , 2014, “ Platform Design Variable Identification for a Product Family Using Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization,” Res. Eng. Des., 25(2), pp. 95–108. [CrossRef]
Fellini, R. , Kokkolaras, M., Michelena, N., Papalambros, P., Perez-Duarte, A., Saitou, K., and Fenyes, P., 2004, “ A Sensitivity-Based Commonality Strategy for Family Products of Mild Variation, With Application to Automotive Body Structures,” Struct. Multidiscip. Optim., 27(1–2), pp. 89–96. [CrossRef]
Agard, B. , and Kusiak, A. , 2004, “ Data-Mining-Based Methodology for the Design of Product Families,” Int. J. Prod. Res., 42(15), pp. 2955–2969. [CrossRef]
Kuang, J. , and Jiang, P. , 2009, “ Product Platform Design for a Product Family Based on Kansei Engineering,” J. Eng. Des., 20(6), pp. 589–607. [CrossRef]
Nagamachi, M. , 1995, “ Kansei Engineering: A New Ergonomic Consumer-Oriented Technology for Product Development,” Int. J. Ind. Ergon., 15(1), pp. 3–11. [CrossRef]
Cheng, X. , 2012, “ Functional Requirements Analysis-Based Method for Product Platform Design in Axiomatic Design,” J. Digital Inf. Manag., 10(5), pp. 312–319.
Qin, H. , Zhong, Y. , Xiao, R. , and Zhang, W. , 2005, “ Product Platform Commonization: Platform Construction and Platform Elements Capture,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 25(11–12), pp. 1071–1077. [CrossRef]
Dai, Z. , and Scott, M. J. , 2007, “ Product Platform Design Through Sensitivity Analysis and Cluster Analysis,” J. Intell. Manuf., 18(1), pp. 97–113. [CrossRef]
Kalligeros, K. , De Weck, O. , and De Neufville, R. , 2006, “ Platform Identification Using Design Structure Matrices,” 16th Annual International Symposium of the International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE), Orlando, FL, July 9–13, pp. 579–594. http://strategic.mit.edu/docs/3_75_INCOSE-sDSM.pdf
Steva, E. D. , Rice, E. N. , Marion, T. J. , Simpson, T. W. , and Stone, R. B. , 2018, “ Two Methodologies for Identifying Product Platform Elements Within an Existing Set of Products,” ASME Paper No. DETC2006-99234.
Qu, T. , Bin, S. , Huang, G. Q. , and Yang, H. D. , 2011, “ Two-Stage Product Platform Development for Mass Customisation,” Int. J. Prod. Res., 49(8), pp. 2197–2219. [CrossRef]
Kim, S. , and Moon, S. K. , 2017, “ Sustainable Platform Identification for Product Family Design,” J. Clean. Prod., 143, pp. 567–581. [CrossRef]
Csermely, P. , London, A. , Wu, L.-Y. , and Uzzi, B. , 2013, “ Structure and Dynamics of Core/Periphery Networks,” J. Complex Networks, 1(2), pp. 93–123. [CrossRef]
Yan, B. , and Luo, J. , 2019, “ Multicores-Periphery Structure in Networks,” e-print arXiv:1605.03286. https://arxiv.org/abs/1605.03286
Borgatti, S. P. , and Everett, M. G. , 1999, “ Models of Core/Periphery Structures,” Soc. Networks, 21(4), pp. 375–395. [CrossRef]
Colizza, V. , Flammini, A. , Serrano, M. A. , and Vespignani, A. , 2006, “ Detecting Rich-Club Ordering in Complex Networks,” Nature, 2(2), pp. 110–115.
Zhou, S. , and Mondragon, R. J. , 2004, “ The Rich-Club Phenomenon in the Internet Topology,” IEEE Commun. Lett., 8(3), pp. 180–182. [CrossRef]
Saavedra, S. , Reed-Tsochas, F. , and Uzzi, B. , 2009, “ A Simple Model of Bipartite Cooperation for Ecological and Organizational Networks,” Nature, 457(7228), pp. 463–466. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Saavedra, S. , Stouffer, D. B. , Uzzi, B. , and Bascompte, J. , 2011, “ Strong Contributors to Network Persistence Are the Most Vulnerable to Extinction,” Nature, 478(7368), pp. 233–235. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bustos, S. , Gomez, C. , Hausmann, R. , and Hidalgo, C. A. , 2012, “ The Dynamics of Nestedness Predicts the Evolution of Industrial Ecosystems,” PLoS One, 7(11), p. e49393. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Supper, J. , Spangenberg, L. , Planatscher, H. , Dräger, A. , Schröder, A. , and Zell, A. , 2009, “ BowTieBuilder: Modeling Signal Transduction Pathways,” BMC Syst. Biol., 3(1), p. 67. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Broder, A. , Kumar, R. , Maghoul, F. , Raghavan, P. , Rajagopalan, S. , Stata, R. , Tomkins, A. , and Wiener, J. , 2000, “ Graph Structure in the Web,” Comput. Networks, 33(1–6), pp. 309–320. [CrossRef]
Kitano, H. , and Oda, K. , 2006, “ Robustness Trade-Offs and Host-Microbial Symbiosis in the Immune System,” Mol. Syst. Biol., 2(1), pp. 1–10. [CrossRef]
Herrmann, H. J. , Schneider, C. M. , Moreira, A. A. , Andrade, J. S. , and Havlin, S. , 2011, “ Onion-Like Network Topology Enhances Robustness Against Malicious Attacks,” J. Stat. Mech. Theory Exp., 2011, p. P01027. [CrossRef]
Magee, C. L. , Ringo, J. D. , and Cunha, A. M. , 2008, “ Engineering Design and Product Development: A Focus of the MIT-Portugal Program,” Int. J. Engng Ed., 24(2), pp. 336–344. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/255636023_Engineering_Design_and_Product_Development_a_focus_of_the_MIT-Portugal_Programme
Schneider, C. M. , Moreira, A. A. , Andrade, J. S. , Havlin, S. , and Herrmann, H. J. , 2011, “ Mitigation of Malicious Attacks on Network Observation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 108(10), pp. 3838–3841. [CrossRef]
Collier, B. , and Kraut, R. , 2012, “ Leading the Collective: Social Capital and the Development of Leaders in Core-Periphery Organizations,” Collective Intelligence Conference, Boston, MA, Apr. 18–20.
Tieri, P. , Grignolio, A. , Zaikin, A. , Mishto, M. , Remondini, D. , Castellani, G. C. , and Franceschi, C. , 2010, “ Network, Degeneracy and Bow Tie. Integrating Paradigms and Architectures to Grasp the Complexity of the Immune System,” Theor. Biol. Med. Modell., 7(1), pp. 1–16. [CrossRef]
Opsahl, T. , Colizza, V. , Panzarasa, P. , and Ramasco, J. J. , 2008, “ Prominence and Control: The Weighted Rich-Club Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 101(16), p. 168702. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
McAuley, J. J. , Da Fontoura Costa, L. , and Caetano, T. S. , 2007, “ Rich-Club Phenomenon Across Complex Network Hierarchies,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 91(8), p. 084103. [CrossRef]
Kirkpatrick, S. , Gelatt, C. D. , and Vecchi, M. P. , 1983, “ Optimization by Simulated Annealing,” Science, 220(4598), pp. 671–680. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Boyd, J. , Fitzgerald, W. , and Beck, R. J. , 2007, “ Computing Core/Periphery Structures and Permutation Tests for Social Relations Data,” Soc. Networks, 28(2), pp. 165–178. [CrossRef]
Glover, F. , 1989, “ Tabu Search—Part I,” ORSA J. Comput., 2 1(3), pp. 4–32.
Storn, R. , and Price, K. , 1997, “ Differential Evolution—A Simple and Efficient Heuristic for Global Optimization Over Continuous Spaces,” J. Glob. Optim., 11(4), pp. 341–359. [CrossRef]
Goldberg, D. E. , 1989, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Boston, MA.
Holme, P. , 2005, “ Core-Periphery Organization of Complex Networks,” Phys. Rev. E: Stat. Nonlinear, Soft Matter Phys., 72(4), p. 046111.
Comrey, A. L. , 1962, “ The Minimum Residual Method of Factor Analysis,” Psychol. Rep., 11(1), pp. 15–18. [CrossRef]
Press, W. H. , 1989, Numerical Recipes in Pascal: The Art of Scientific Computing, Cambridge University Press, New York.
Nelder, J. A. , and Mead, R. , 1965, “ A Simplex Method for Function Minimization,” Comput. J., 7(4), pp. 308–313. [CrossRef]
Rombach, M. P. , Porter, M. A. , Fowler, J. H. , and Mucha, P. J. , 2012, “ Core-Periphery Structure in Networks,” SIAM J. Appl. Math., 74(1), pp. 167–190. [CrossRef]
Gürbüz, F. , and Pardalos, P. M. , 2012, “ A Decision Making Process Application for the Slurry Production in Ceramics Via Fuzzy Cluster and Data Mining,” J. Ind. Manag. Optim., 8(2), pp. 285–297. [CrossRef]
Song, B. , and Luo, J. , 2017, “ Mining Patent Precedents for Data-Driven Design: The Case of Spherical Rolling Robots,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 139(11), p. 111420. [CrossRef]
Yan, P. , Liu, D. , Wang, D. , and Ma, H. , 2016, “ Data-Driven Controller Design for General MIMO Nonlinear Systems Via Virtual Reference Feedback Tuning and Neural Networks,” Neurocomputing, 171, pp. 815–825. [CrossRef]
Ma, J. , Kwak, M. , and Kim, H. M. , 2012, “ Pre-Life and End-of-Life Combined Profit Optimization With Predictive Product Lifecycle Design,” 38th Design Automation Conference, Chicago, IL, Aug. 12–15, pp. 1315–1327.
Lei, N. , and Moon, S. K. , 2015, “ A Decision Support System for Market-Driven Product Positioning and Design,” Decis. Support Syst., 69, pp. 82–91. [CrossRef]
Ma, J. , and Kim, H. M. , 2014, “ Continuous Preference Trend Mining for Optimal Product Design With Multiple Profit Cycles,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 136(6), p. 061002. [CrossRef]
Mun, D. , 2011, “ Knowledge-Based Part Similarity Measurement Utilizing Ontology and Multi-Criteria Decision Making Technique,” Adv. Eng. Inf., 25(2), pp. 119–130. [CrossRef]
Wilberg, J. , Lau, K. , Nützel, T. , Hollauer, C. , and Omer, M. , 2018, “ Development of a Catalogue Supporting Idea Generation for Internet of Things Use Cases,” 15th International Design Conference (DESIGN 2018), Dubrovnik, Croatia, May 21–24, pp. 1453–1464. https://www.designsociety.org/publication/40550/DEVELOPMENT+OF+A+CATALOGUE+SUPPORTING+IDEA+GENERATION+FOR+INTERNET+OF+THINGS+USE+CASES
Tucker, C. S. , and Kim, H. M. , 2009, “ Data-Driven Decision Tree Classification for Product Portfolio Design Optimization,” ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., 9(4), p. 041004. [CrossRef]
Kusiak, A. , and Smith, M. , 2007, “ Data Mining in Design of Products and Production Systems,” Annu. Rev. Control, 31(1), pp. 147–156. [CrossRef]
Mavridou, E. , Kehagias, D. D. , Tzovaras, D. , and Hassapis, G. , 2013, “ Mining Affective Needs of Automotive Industry Customers for Building a Mass-Customization Recommender System,” J. Intell. Manuf., 24(2), pp. 251–265. [CrossRef]
Jiao, Y. , and Yang, Y. , 2018, “ A Product Configuration Approach Based on Online Data,” J. Intell. Manuf., (epub).
Peyyeti, S. , 2016, “Innovation Mining: A Framework for Identifying Components Worth Innovating in a System,” M.S thesis, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY. https://scholarworks.rit.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.co.in/&httpsredir=1&article=10326&context=theses
Kang, S. W. , and Tucker, C. S. , 2018, “ Exploring the Correlation Between New Function Attributes Mined From Different Product Domains and Market Sales,” Eng. Econ., 63(2), pp. 113–142. [CrossRef]
Hirtz, J. , Stone, R. B. , McAdams, D. A. , Szykman, S. , and Wood, K. L. , 2002, “ A Functional Basis for Engineering Design: Reconciling and Evolving Previous Efforts,” Res. Eng. Des., 13(2), pp. 65–82. [CrossRef]
Borgatti, S. P. , Everett, M. G. , and Freeman, L. , 2002, “UCINET for Windows: Software for Social Network Analysis,” Analytic Technologies, Harvard, MA.
Li, Z. , Harman, M. , and Hierons, R. M. , 2007, “ Search Algorithms for Regression Test Case Prioritization,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., 33(4), pp. 225–237. [CrossRef]
Bicchi, A. , Balluchi, A. , Prattichizzo, D. , and Gorelli, A. , 1997, “ Introducing the ‘SPHERICLE’: An Experimental Testbed for Research and Teaching in Nonholonomy,” International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Albuquerque, NM, Apr. 20–25, pp. 2620–2625.
Bernstein, I. H. , and Wilson, A. , 2017, “ Self-Propelled Device With Actively Engaged Drive System,” Sphero, Boulder, CO, U. S. Patent No. 9,766,620. https://patents.google.com/patent/US9766620B2/en
Kim, J. , Kwon, H. , and Lee, J. , 2009, “ A Rolling Robot: Design and Implementation,” Seventh Asian Control Conference (ASCC), Hong Kong, China, Aug. 27–19, pp. 1474–1479. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/5276168
Yoon, J. C. , Ahn, S. S. , and Lee, Y. J. , 2011, “ Spherical Robot With New Type of Two-Pendulum Driving Mechanism,” 15th International Conference on Intelligent Engineering Systems (INES), Poprad, Slovakia, June 23–25, pp. 275–279.
Bhattacharya, S. , and Agrawal, S. K. , 2000, “ Design, Experiments and Motion Planning of a Spherical Rolling Robot,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), San Francisco, CA, April 24–28, pp. 1207–1212.
Mukherjea, S. , Bamba, B. , and Kankar, P. , 2005, “ Information Retrieval and Knowledge Discovery Utilizing a BioMedical Patent Semantic Web,” IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng., 17(8), pp. 1099–1110. [CrossRef]
Hajos, G. A. , Jones, J. A. , Behar, A. , and Dodd, M. , 2018, “ An Overview of Wind-Driven Rovers for Planetary Exploration,” AIAA Paper No. 2005-244.
Halme, A. , Suomela, J. , Schönberg, T. , and Wang, Y. , 1996, “ A Spherical Mobile Micro-Robot for Scientific Applications,” ESA Workshop on Advanced Space Technologies for Robot Applications, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, Nov. 6–7. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/268324948_A_SPHERICAL_MOBILE_MICRO-ROBOT_FOR_SCIENTIFIC_APPLICATIONS
Wu, F. , Marechal, L. , Vibhute, A. , Foong, S. , Soh, G. S. , and Wood, K. L. , 2016, “ A Compact Magnetic Directional Proximity Sensor for Spherical Robots,” IEEE International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM), Banff, AB, Canada, July 12–15, pp. 1258–1264.
Wu, F. , Vibhute, A. , Soh, G. S. , Wood, K. L. , and Foong, S. , 2017, “ A Compact Magnetic Field-Based Obstacle Detection and Avoidance System for Miniature Spherical Robots,” Sensors (Basel), 17(6), p. E1231. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Niu, X. , Suherlan, A. P. , Soh, G. S. , Foong, S. , Wood, K. , and Otto, K. , 2014, “ Mechanical Development and Control of a Miniature Nonholonomic Spherical Rolling Robot,” 13th International Conference on Control Automation Robotics and Vision (ICARCV), Singapore, Dec. 10–12, pp. 1923–1928.
Ajay, V. A. , Suherlan, A. P. , Soh, G. S. , Foong, S. , Wood, K. , and Otto, K. , 2015, “ Localization and Trajectory Tracking of an Autonomous,” ASME Paper No. DETC2015-47223.
Chowdhury, A. R. , Soh, G. S. , Foong, S. H. , and Wood, K. L. , 2017, “ Experiments in Second Order Sliding Mode Control of a CPG Based Spherical Robot,” 20th IFAC World Congress, Toulouse, France, July 9–14, pp. 2365–2372.
Pahl, G. , and Beitz, W. , 1996, Engineering Design: A Systematic Approach, Springer, London.
Jiao, J. , Simpson, T. W. , and Siddique, Z. , 2007, “ Product Family Design and Platform-Based Product Development: A State-of-the-Art Review,” J. Intell. Manuf., 18(1), pp. 5–29. [CrossRef]
Erens, F. , and Verhulst, K. , 1997, “ Architectures for Product Families,” Comput. Ind., 33(2–3), pp. 165–178. [CrossRef]
Erixon, G. , and Ostgren, B. , 1993, “ Synthesis and Evaluation Tool for Modular Designs,” International Conference on Engineering Design, Hague, The Netherlands, Aug. 17–19, pp. 898–905.
Dahmus, J. B. , Gonzalez-Zugasti, J. P. , and Otto, K. N. , 2001, “ Modular Product Architecture,” Des. Stud., 22(5), pp. 409–424. [CrossRef]
Altshuller, G. S. , and Shapiro, R. B. , 1956, “ О Психологии изобретательского творчества (On the Psychology of Inventive Creation),” Вопросы Психологии (The Psychol. Issues), 6, pp. 37–49 (in Russian).
Fu, K. , Murphy, J. , Yang, M. , Otto, K. , Jensen, D. , and Wood, K. , 2014, “ Design-by-Analogy: Experimental Evaluation of a Functional Analogy Search Methodology for Concept Generation Improvement,” Res. Eng. Des., 26(1), pp. 77–95. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Structures of various types of core–periphery networks: (a) Typical core-periphery, (b) Rich-clubs, (c) Nested, (d) Bow-tie, and (e) Onion

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(a)–(c) The spherical rolling robot product family from Sphero, Inc., and (d) Virgo from SUTD: (a) Sphero, (b) BB-8, (c) BB-9E, and (d) Virgo

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The co-occurrence network of functions identified in prior SRR designs. Core functions are highlighted as solids and peripheral functions are represented as circles.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In