0
Research Papers: Design Theory and Methodology

Investigating User Emotional Responses to Eco-Feedback Designs

[+] Author and Article Information
Qifang Bao

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
77 Massachusetts Avenue, 3-446,
Cambridge, MA 02139
e-mail: qfbao@mit.edu

Edward Burnell

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
77 Massachusetts Avenue, 3-446,
Cambridge, MA 02139
e-mail: eburn@mit.edu

Ann M. Hughes

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
77 Massachusetts Avenue,
Cambridge, MA 02139
e-mail: amhughes@mit.edu

Maria C. Yang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
77 Massachusetts Avenue, 3-449B,
Cambridge, MA 02139
e-mail: mcyang@mit.edu

Contributed by the Design Theory and Methodology Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN. Manuscript received June 30, 2018; final manuscript received November 5, 2018; published online December 20, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Tahira Reid.

J. Mech. Des 141(2), 021103 (Dec 20, 2018) (14 pages) Paper No: MD-18-1524; doi: 10.1115/1.4042007 History: Received June 30, 2018; Revised November 05, 2018

Emotional responses to a product can be critical in influencing how the product will be used. This study explores the emotions that arise from users' interaction with eco-feedback products, and investigates links between emotions and users' resource conservation behaviors. In-lab experiments were conducted with 68 participants of varying backgrounds. Each participant was shown sketches of four conceptual designs of eco-feedback products and reported how they would feel and behave in different scenarios using the products. Two styles of eco-feedback design, quantitative and figurative, were compared to each other and were compared to neutral designs, which had little or no feedback information. Results showed that taking resource conservation actions such as turning off lights was highly correlated with negative emotions toward wasting resources, such as guilt, upset, embarrassment, and annoyance. Users' evaluations of esthetics, usefulness, and overall quality of eco-feedback products, however, were highly correlated with positive emotions toward resource conservation, described as satisfied, proud, interested, and joyful. Figurative designs were observed to evoke much stronger emotions among younger participants than older ones. Ultimately, we hope our findings are useful to the designers of eco-feedback products.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Topics: Design , Feedback , Certainty
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Norman, D. A. , 2004, Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things, Basic Civitas Books, New York.
Desmet, P. , and Hekkert, P. , 2007, “ Framework of Product Experience,” Int. J. Des., 1(1), pp. 57–66. http://www.ijdesign.org/index.php/IJDesign/article/view/66/15
Boatwright, P. , and Cagan, J. , 2010, Built to Love: Creating Products That Captivate Customers, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, San Francisco, CA.
Bhamra, T. , Lilley, D. , and Tang, T. , 2011, “ Design for Sustainable Behaviour: Using Products to Change Consumer Behaviour,” Des. J., 14(4), pp. 427–445.
Lilley, D. , 2009, “ Design for Sustainable Behaviour: Strategies and Perceptions,” Des. Stud., 30(6), pp. 704–720. [CrossRef]
Froehlich, J. , Findlater, L. , and Landay, J. , 2010, “ The Design of Eco-Feedback Technology,” Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), Atlanta, GA, Apr. 10–15, pp. 1999–2008.
Cor, E. , and Zwolinski, P. , 2015, “ A Protocol to Address User Behavior in the Eco-Design of Consumer Products,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 137(7), p. 071413. [CrossRef]
Shu, L. H. , Du, J. , Herrmann, C. , Sakao, T. , Shimomura, Y. , De Bock, Y. , and Srivastava, J. , 2017, “ Design for Reduced Resource Consumption During the Use Phase of Products,” CIRP Ann., 66(2), pp. 635–658. [CrossRef]
Sohn, M. , and Nam, T. , 2015, “ Understanding the Attributes of Product Intervention for the Promotion of Pro-Environmental Behavior: A Framework and Its Effect on Immediate User Reactions,” Int. J. Des., 9(2), pp. 55–77. http://www.ijdesign.org/index.php/IJDesign/article/view/1609/694
Zachrisson, J. , and Boks, C. , 2012, “ Exploring Behavioural Psychology to Support Design for Sustainable Behaviour Research,” J. Des. Res., 10(1/2), pp. 50–66.
Bao, Q. , Shaukat, M. M. , Elantary, A. , and Yang, M. C. , 2016, “ Eco-Feedback Designs: A Balance Between the Quantitative and the Emotional,” ASME Paper No. DETC2016-59376.
Watson, D. , Clark, L. A. , and Tellegen, A. , 1988, “ Development and Validation of Brief Measures of Positive and Negative Affect: The PANAS Scales,” J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 54(6), p. 1063 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Richins, M. L. , 1997, “ Measuring Emotions in the Consumption Experience,” J. Consum. Res., 24(2), pp. 127–146. [CrossRef]
Chini, C. M. , Schreiber, K. L. , Barker, Z. A. , and Stillwell, A. S. , 2016, “ Quantifying Energy and Water Savings in the U.S. Residential Sector,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 50(17), pp. 9003–9012. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lilley, D. , Lofthouse, V. , and Bhamra, T. , 2005, “ Towards Instinctive Sustainable Product Use,” Second International Conference in Sustainability, Creating the Culture, Aberdeen, Scotland, Nov. 2–4. https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/dspace-jspui/bitstream/2134/1013/3/Towards%2520instinctive%2520sustainable%2520product%2520use_Lilley%2520Lofthouse%2520%2526%2520Bhamra.pdf
Petersen, D. , Steele, J. , and Wilkerson, J. , 2009, “ WattBot: A Residential Electricity Monitoring and Feedback System,” Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '09), Boston, MA, Apr. 4–9, p. 2847.
Arroyo, E. , Bonanni, L. , and Selker, T. , 2005, “ Waterbot: Exploring Feedback and Persuasive Techniques at the Sink,” SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '05), Portland, OR, Apr. 2–7, pp. 631–639. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/221515803_Waterbot_Exploring_feedback_and_persuasive_techniques_at_the_sink
Abrahamse, W. , Steg, L. , Vlek, C. , and Rothengatter, T. , 2005, “ A Review of Intervention Studies Aimed at Household Energy Conservation,” J. Environ. Psychol., 25(3), pp. 273–291. [CrossRef]
Benzoni, N. , and Telenko, C. , 2016, “ A Review of Intervention Studies Aimed at Domestic Water Conservation,” International Conference of Design, User Experience, and Usability (DUXU 2016), Toronto, ON, Canada, July 17–22, pp. 427–438.
Cardenas-Tamayo, R. A. , García-Macías, J. A. , Miller, T. M. , Rich, P. , Davis, J. , Albesa, J. , Gasulla, M. , Higuera, J. , Penella, M. T. , and Garcia, J. , 2009, “ Pervasive Computing Approaches to Environmental Sustainability,” IEEE Pervasive Comput., 8(1), pp. 54–57. [CrossRef]
Amft, O. , Medland, R. , Foth, M. , Petkov, P. , Abreu, J. , Pereira, F. C. , Johnson, P. , Brewer, R. , Pierce, J. , and Paulos, E. , 2011, “ Smart Energy Systems,” IEEE Pervasive Comput., 10(1), pp. 63–65. [CrossRef]
Srivastava, J. , and Shu, L. H. , 2013, “ Affordances and Product Design to Support Environmentally Conscious Behavior,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 135(10), p. 101006. [CrossRef]
Montazeri, S. , Finkbiner, D. , Papalambros, P. , and Gonzalez, R. , 2013, “ Save a Napkin, Save a Tree: The Role of Metaphors in Product Design to Change Behavior,” International Conference on Engineering Design, Design for Harmonies, Seoul, South Korea, Aug. 19–22. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258699151_Save_a_napkin_save_a_tree_The_role_of_metaphors_in_product_design_to_change_behavior
Srivastava, J. , and Shu, L. H. , 2015, “ Considering Different Motivations in Design for Consumer-Behavior Change,” ASME Paper No. DETC2015-47625.
Goucher-Lambert, K. , and Cagan, J. , 2015, “ The Impact of Sustainability on Consumer Preference Judgments of Product Attributes,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 137(8), p. 081401. [CrossRef]
Goucher-Lambert, K. , Moss, J. , and Cagan, J. , 2017, “ Inside the Mind: Using Neuroimaging to Understand Moral Product Preference Judgments Involving Sustainability,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 139(4), p. 041103. [CrossRef]
She, J. , and MacDonald, E. F. , 2018, “ Exploring the Effects of a Product's Sustainability Triggers on Pro-Environmental Decision-Making,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 140(1), p. 011102. [CrossRef]
Jimenez Jaramillo, S. , Pohlmeyer, A. , and Desmet, P. , 2015, Positive Design Reference Guide, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
Nagamachi, M. , 1995, “ Kansei Engineering: A New Ergonomic Consumer-Oriented Technology for Product Development,” Int. J. Ind. Ergonom., 15(1), pp. 3–11. [CrossRef]
Jordan, P. W. , 2002, Designing Pleasurable Products: An Introduction to the New Human Factors, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Bagozzi, R. P. , Gopinath, M. , and Nyer, P. U. , 1999, “ The Role of Emotions in Marketing,” J. Acad. Mark. Sci., 27(2), pp. 184–206. [CrossRef]
Westbrook, R. A. , and Oliver, R. L. , 1991, “ The Dimensionality of Consumption Emotion Patterns and Consumer Satisfaction,” J. Consum. Res., 18(1), pp. 84–91. [CrossRef]
Han, S. , Lerner, J. S. , and Keltner, D. , 2007, “ Feelings and Consumer Decision Making: The Appraisal-Tendency Framework,” J. Consum. Psychol., 17(3), pp. 158–168. [CrossRef]
Sylcott, B. , Cagan, J. , and Tabibnia, G. , 2013, “ Understanding Consumer Tradeoffs Between Form and Function Through Metaconjoint and Cognitive Neuroscience Analyses,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 135(10), p. 101002. [CrossRef]
Bang, H. , Ellinger, A. E. , Hadjimarcou, J. , and Traichal, P. A. , 2000, “ Consumer Concern, Knowledge, Belief, and Attitude Toward Renewable Energy: An Application of the Reasoned Action Theory,” Psychol. Mark., 17(6), pp. 449–468. [CrossRef]
Kim, Y. J. , Njite, D. , and Hancer, M. , 2013, “ Anticipated Emotion in Consumers' Intentions to Select Eco-Friendly Restaurants: Augmenting the Theory of Planned Behavior,” Int. J. Hospitality Manage., 34, pp. 255–262. [CrossRef]
Carrus, G. , Passafaro, P. , and Bonnes, M. , 2008, “ Emotions, Habits and Rational Choices in Ecological Behaviours: The Case of Recycling and Use of Public Transportation,” J. Environ. Psychol., 28(1), pp. 51–62. [CrossRef]
Fang, W. , and Hsu, J. , 2010, “ Design Concerns of Persuasive Feedback System,” 7th AAAI Conference on Visual Representations and Reasoning, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, Menlo Park, CA, Technical, Report No. WS-10-07.
Dillahunt, T. , Becker, G. , Mankoff, J. , and Kraut, R. , 2008, “ Motivating Environmentally Sustainable Behavior Changes With a Virtual Polar Bear,” Workshop on Pervasive Persuasive Technology and Environmental Sustainability, Sydney, Australia, May 19–22, pp. 58–62. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228830015_Motivating_environmentally_sustainable_behavior_changes_with_a_virtual_polar_bear
Cialdini, R. B. , and Goldstein, N. J. , 2004, “ Social Influence: Compliance and Conformity,” Annu. Rev. Psychol., 55, pp. 591–621. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bradley, M. M. , and Lang, P. J. , 1994, “ Measuring Emotion: The Self-Assessment Manikin and the Semantic Differential,” J. Behav. Ther. Exp. Psychiatry, 25(1), pp. 49–59. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Desmet, P. , 2003, “ Measuring Emotion: Development and Application of an Instrument to Measure Emotional Responses to Products,” Funology, Springer, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 111–123.
Crawford, J. R. , and Henry, J. D. , 2004, “ The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS): Construct Validity, Measurement Properties and Normative Data in a Large Non‐Clinical Sample,” Br. J. Clin. Psychol., 43(3), pp. 245–265. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Picard, R. W. , 1997, Affective Computing, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Kaiser, S. , and Wehrle, T. , 2001, “ Facial Expressions as Indicators of Appraisal Processes,” Appraisal Processes in Emotion: Theory, Methods, Research, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 285–300.
Johnstone, T. , and Scherer, K. R. , 2000, “ Vocal Communication of Emotion,” The Handbook of Emotion, Guilford, New York, pp. 220–235.
Haag, A. , Goronzy, S. , Schaich, P. , and Williams, J. , 2004, “ Emotion Recognition Using Bio-Sensors: First Steps Towards an Automatic System,” Tutorial and Research Workshop on Affective Dialogue Systems, Springer, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 36–48.
Petrantonakis, P. C. , and Hadjileontiadis, L. J. , 2010, “ Emotion Recognition From EEG Using Higher Order Crossings,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed., 14(2), pp. 186–197. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Phan, K. L. , Wager, T. , Taylor, S. F. , and Liberzon, I. , 2002, “ Functional Neuroanatomy of Emotion: A Meta-Analysis of Emotion Activation Studies in PET and FMRI,” Neuroimage, 16(2), pp. 331–348. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Desmet, P. M. A. , 2012, “ Faces of Product Pleasure: 25 Positive Emotions in Human-Product Interactions,” Int. J. Des., 6(2), pp. 1–29. http://www.ijdesign.org/index.php/IJDesign/article/view/1190
Sonderegger, A. , Zbinden, G. , Uebelbacher, A. , and Sauer, J. , 2012, “ The Influence of Product Aesthetics and Usability Over the Course of Time: A Longitudinal Field Experiment,” Ergonomics, 55(7), pp. 713–730. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Sauer, J. , and Sonderegger, A. , 2009, “ The Influence of Prototype Fidelity and Aesthetics of Design in Usability Tests: Effects on User Behaviour, Subjective Evaluation and Emotion,” Appl. Ergonom., 40(4), pp. 670–677. [CrossRef]
Rosson, M. B. , and Carroll, J. M. , 2009, “ Scenario Based Design,” Human-Computer Interaction: Development Process, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 145–162.
Kim, H. , Chen, J. , Kim, E. , and Agogino, A. M. , 2017, “ Scenario-Based Conjoint Analysis: Measuring Preferences for User Experiences in Early Stage Design,” ASME Paper No. DETC2017-67690.
Kuznetsov, S. , and Paulos, E. , 2010, “ UpStream: Motivating Water Conservation With Low-Cost Water Flow Sensing and Persuasive Displays,” SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '10), Atlanta, GA, Apr. 10–15, pp. 1851–1860. https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1753604&dl=ACM&coll=DL
Montazeri, S. , 2013, Design for Behavior Change: The Role of Product Visual Aesthetics in Promoting Sustainable Behavior, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
Nederhof, A. J. , 1985, “ Methods of Coping With Social Desirability Bias: A Review,” Eur. J. Soc. Psychol., 15(3), pp. 263–280. [CrossRef]
Garvin, D. A. , 1984, “ What Does ‘Product Quality' Really Mean?,” Sloan Manage. Rev., 25, pp. 25–43. https://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/what-does-product-quality-really-mean/
Häggman, A. , Tsai, G. , Elsen, C. , Honda, T. , and Yang, M. C. , 2015, “ Connections Between the Design Tool, Design Attributes, and User Preferences in Early Stage Design,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 137(7), p. 071408. [CrossRef]
Bao, Q. , Hughes, A. , Burnell, E. , and Yang, M. C. , 2018, “ Investigating User Emotional Responses to Eco-Feedback Designs,” ASME Paper No. DETC2018-86208.
Dunlap, R. E. , Van Liere, K. D. , Mertig, A. G. , and Jones, R. E. , 2000, “ Measuring Endorsement of the New Ecological Paradigm: A Revised NEP Scale,” J. Soc Issues, 56(3), pp. 425–442. [CrossRef]
Schewe, C. D. , and Noble, S. M. , 2000, “ Market Segmentation by Cohorts: The Value and Validity of Cohorts in America and Abroad,” J. Mark. Manage., 16(1–3), pp. 129–142. [CrossRef]
Ekman, P. , 1992, “ An Argument for Basic Emotions,” Cognit. Emotion, 6(3–4), pp. 169–200. [CrossRef]
Plutchik, R. , 2001, “ The Nature of Emotions: Human Emotions Have Deep Evolutionary Roots, a Fact That May Explain Their Complexity and Provide Tools for Clinical Practice,” Am. Sci., 89(4), pp. 344–350. [CrossRef]
Posner, J. , Russell, J. A. , and Peterson, B. S. , 2005, “ The Circumplex Model of Affect: An Integrative Approach to Affective Neuroscience, Cognitive Development, and Psychopathology,” Dev. Psychopathol., 17(3), pp. 715–734. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ochsner, K. N. , Ray, R. R. , Hughes, B. , McRae, K. , Cooper, J. C. , Weber, J. , Gabrieli, J. D. E. , and Gross, J. J. , 2009, “ Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processes in Emotion Generation: Common and Distinct Neural Mechanisms,” Psychol. Sci., 20(11), pp. 1322–1331. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Aronson, E. , 1969, “ The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance: A Current Perspective,” Adv. Exp. Soc. Psychol., 4, pp. 1–34.
Camerer, C. , Loewenstein, G. , and Prelec, D. , 2005, “ Neuroeconomics: How Neuroscience Can Inform Economics,” J. Econ. Lit., 43(1), pp. 9–64. [CrossRef]
Baumeister, R. F. , Vohs, K. D. , Nathan DeWall, C. , and Zhang, L. , 2007, “ How Emotion Shapes Behavior: Feedback, Anticipation, and Reflection, Rather Than Direct Causation,” Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev., 11(2), pp. 167–203. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Baumann, D. J. , Cialdini, R. B. , and Kendrick, D. T. , 1981, “ Altruism as Hedonism: Helping and Self-Gratification as Equivalent Responses,” J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 40(6), p. 1039. [CrossRef]
Fokkinga, S. F. , and Desmet, P. M. A. , 2013, “ Ten Ways to Design for Disgust, Sadness, and Other Enjoyments: A Design Approach to Enrich Product Experiences With Negative Emotions,” Int. J. Des., 7(1), pp. 19–36. http://www.ijdesign.org/index.php/IJDesign/article/viewFile/1180/541
MacDonald, E. F. , and She, J. , 2015, “ Seven Cognitive Concepts for Successful Eco-Design,” J. Cleaner Prod., 92, pp. 23–36. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The neutral, quantitative, and figurative designs of four eco-feedback products in a conserving scenario and a wasteful scenario

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Actionable product usage scenario of figurative water faucet design

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Conserving and wasteful product usage scenarios

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Distributions (boxplots) of intensity of 15 emotions of using the products in the conserving (left) and wasteful (right) scenarios

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparing principal components of emotions in conserving and wasteful scenarios, between experimental groups and between age groups

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Certainty of taking resource conservation action (left) and users' evaluation on designs' overall quality (right)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Participants' positive and negative affect

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In