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Accepted Manuscripts

BASIC VIEW  |  EXPANDED VIEW
Guest Editorial  
Harrison M. Kim, Ying Liu, Charlie C.L. Wang and Yan Wang
J. Mech. Des   doi: 10.1115/1.4037943
With the arrival of cyber-physical systems or "internet of things" era, massive human- and machine-generated data will create unprecedented challenges and at the same time unmatched opportunities in advancing the theory, methods, tools and practice of data-driven design for products, systems and services. By exploiting such huge, versatile and highly contextualized through-life data, design engineers can harness their organization's competitive edge by uncovering patterns, novel insights and knowledge for data-driven design. The aim of this special issue is to bring together original and archival articles that present significant contributions in advancing the field of data-driven design.
TOPICS: Design, Internet, Machinery, Engineers
research-article  
Tianchen Liu, Shapour Azarm and Nikhil Chopra
J. Mech. Des   doi: 10.1115/1.4037893
Co-design refers to the process of integrating the optimization of the physical plant design and control of a system. In this paper, a new class of co-design problems with a multisubsystem architecture in both design and control is formulated and solved. Our work here extends earlier research on models and solution approaches from single-system to multisubsystem co-design. In this class, the optimization model for the physical design part in each subsystem is assumed to have a convex objective function with convex inequality and linear equality constraints. The optimization model for the control part of each subsystem belongs to a class of finite time-horizon Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) feedback control. A new multi-level decentralized method is proposed that can obtain optimal or near-optimal solutions for this class of co-design problems. Details of the model and approach are presented and demonstrated by a numerical as well as a more complex spring-mass-damper system example. The proposed decentralized approach has been compared with a centralized approach. Using a scalable test problem, it is shown that as the size of the problem is increased, the computation effort for the decentralized approach increases linearly while that of the centralized approach increases nonlinearly.
TOPICS: Design, Optimization, Computation, Feedback, Industrial plants, Springs, Dampers
research-article  
Zachary Satterfield, Neehar Kulkarni, Georges Fadel, Gang Li, Nicole Coutris and Matthew P. Castanier
J. Mech. Des   doi: 10.1115/1.4037894
A systematic Unit Cell Synthesis approach is presented for designing meta-materials from a unit cell level which are made out of linearly elastic constitutive materials to achieve tunable non-linear deformation characteristics. This method is expected to serve as an alternative to classical Topology Optimization methods (SIMP or Homogenization) in specific cases by carrying out unit cell synthesis and subsequent size-optimization. The unit cells are developed by synthesizing elemental components with simple geometries that display geometric non-linearity under deformation. The idea is to replace the physical nonlinear behavior of the target material by adding geometric nonlinearities associated with the deforming entities and thus, achieve large over-all deformations with small linear strains in each deformed entity. A case-study is presented which uses the proposed method to design a meta-material that mimics the nonlinear deformation behavior of a military tank track rubber pad under compression. Two unit cell concepts that successfully match the non-linear target rubber compression curve are evaluated. Conclusions and scope for future work to develop the method are discussed.
TOPICS: Deformation, Design, Optimization, Rubber, Compression, Metamaterials, Military systems, Topology, Case studies
research-article  
Hyunmin Cheong, Wei Li, Adrian Cheung, Andy Nogueira and Francesco Iorio
J. Mech. Des   doi: 10.1115/1.4037817
This paper presents a method to automatically extract function knowledge from natural language text. The extraction method uses syntactic rules to extract subject-verb-object triplets from parsed text. Then, the Functional Basis taxonomy, WordNet, and word2vec were leveraged to classify the triplets as artifact-function-energy flow knowledge. For evaluation, the function definitions associated with 30 most frequent artifacts compiled in a human-constructed knowledge base, Oregon State University's Design Repository (DR), were compared to those extracted from 4953 Wikipedia pages classified under the category "Machines" using the method developed. The method found function definitions for 66% of the test artifacts. For those artifacts found, 50% of the function definitions identified were compiled in the DR. In addition, 75% of the most frequent function definitions found by the method were also defined in the DR. The results demonstrate the potential of the current work in enabling automated construction of function knowledge repositories.
TOPICS: Flow (Dynamics), Machinery, Construction, Design
Technical Brief  
Zhaoyao Shi, Zanhui Shu, Bo Yu, Tao Wang and Xiaoyi Wang
J. Mech. Des   doi: 10.1115/1.4037799
The gear drive is theoretically a normal-order meshing process to transmit movement and power. When temperature variation, misalignment, manufacture error or deformation occurs, the normal-order meshing will be destroyed. Under certain conditions, the contact point moves in the opposite direction to the normal order on the surface of the tooth. This process is called gear reverse-order meshing. The gear reverse-order meshing will lead to gear impact and generate noise during the transmission. In the study, with gear pairs with base pitch deviation as the study object, we further studied this process and expanded the application scope of the process to kinematics and dynamics. The transmission error of the gear reverse-order meshing process was deduced. Both the speed error and acceleration error were obtained. Based on the curves of these three variables, the influence of gear reverse-order meshing on gear transmission characteristic was analyzed to explore the causes for the meshing impact phenomenon. Although the gear reverse-order meshing process has some disadvantages, it could also be applied in some fields. Due to the feature of gear reverse-order meshing, it is applied to gear integrated error measuring technique and tooth-skipped gear honing process effectively.
TOPICS: Gears, Errors, Kinematics, Dynamics (Mechanics), Deformation, Temperature, Mechanical drives, Noise (Sound)
research-article  
Xian-long Peng, Qin-yu Niu, Wei Guo and Zong-de Fang
J. Mech. Des   doi: 10.1115/1.4037762
The application of a Gleason coniflex cutter (plane-cutter) on a modern Phoenix bevel gear machine tool in face gear manufacturing has a advantage: involving a universal cutter or grinder and an available existing machine, it is valuable to research this method for face gear generation. The principle of the application of the plane-cutter in face gear manufacturing is presented first. Then, the geometry of the cutter is defined, and the model of the face gear generated by this method in abstract is established. Third, a method that uses a pre-designed contact path for synthesis with the motion parameters of the plane-cutter is proposed; controllable transmission errors are taken into consideration in this process. Fourth, based on the equivalence principle of the position and direction, the computer numerical control (CNC) motion rules of all spindles of the machine are determined, and the surface generated by the machine is presented. Finally, numerical simulation of an example demonstrates that although the surface generated by the plane-cutter, to a certain extent, deviates from the theoretical surface generated by the traditional method, the surface, in meshing with the standard involute surface of the pinion, presents good geometry meshing performance based on tooth contact analysis (TCA), except for a shortened contact ellipse.
TOPICS: Manufacturing, Gears, Machinery, Geometry, Computer numerical control machine tools, Bevel gears, Computers, Errors, Machine tools, Computer simulation, Tool grinders
research-article  
Masanori Kagotani and Hiroyuki Ueda
J. Mech. Des   doi: 10.1115/1.4037761
In synchronous belt drives, it is generally difficult to eliminate pulley eccentricity, because the pulley teeth and shaft hole are produced separately. This eccentricity affects the accuracy of rotation transmission, so that the belt tension changes during a single rotation of the pulley. This in turn affects the occurrence of resonance in the spans. In the present study, the transmission error in a synchronous belt drive with an eccentric pulley in the absence of a transmitted load was experimentally investigated for the case in which the spans undergo first-mode transverse vibration due to resonance. The transmission error was found to have a component with a period equal to the span displacement, in addition to a component with a period of half the span displacement. During a single rotation of the pulley, the magnitude of the transmission error increased, and its frequency decreased, with decreasing belt tension. The transmission error exhibited the large value when two frequency conditions were satisfied: one was that the meshing frequency was within the range of span frequency variations due to the eccentricity, and the other was that the minimum span frequency was close to an integer multiple of the pulley rotation frequency. Even if both of these conditions occurred, if the range of span frequency variations due to the eccentricity was larger than 13 Hz, the transmission error could be eliminated by adjusting the belt tension so that the average span frequency corresponded to the meshing frequency.
TOPICS: Resonance, Errors, Pulleys, Timing belts, Rotation, Tension, Belts, Arches, Displacement, Stress, Vibration
Technical Brief  
Xiang Li, XiaoPeng Wang, Houjun Zhang and Yuheng Guo
J. Mech. Des   doi: 10.1115/1.4037714
In the previous reports, analytical target cascading (ATC) is generally applied to product optimization. In this paper, the application area of ATC is expanded to trajectory optimization. Direct collocation method is utilized to convert a trajectory optimization into a nonlinear programming (NLP) problem. The converted NLP is a large-scale problem with sparse matrix of functional dependence table suitable for the application of ATC. Three numerical case studies are provided to show the effects of ATC in solving trajectory optimization problems.
TOPICS: Trajectories (Physics), Optimization, Nonlinear programming
research-article  
Yan Shi, Zhenzhou Lu, Kaichao Zhang and Yuhao Wei
J. Mech. Des   doi: 10.1115/1.4037673
For efficiently estimating the dynamic failure probability of the structure with the multiple temporal and spatial parameters, a transferred limit state function technique is firstly proposed in this paper. By finding the effective first-crossing point which controls the failure of the structural system, the transferred technique is constructed to transform the dynamic reliability problem into static one. For determining the effective first-crossing point, the parameter domain is firstly divided into different dominant domain corresponding to every parameter. Based on the parameter dominant domain, the first-crossing point about each parameter is obtained by comparing the difference value between the point on the failure boundary and the corresponding parameter upper bound. Finally the effective first-crossing point is determined by finding the point which controls the structure failure. With the transferred technique, two strategies (including the sparse grid integration based on fourth-moment method and the maximum entropy based on dimensional reduction method) are proposed to efficiently estimate the dynamic failure probability. Several examples are employed to illustrate the significance and effectiveness of the transferred technique and the proposed methods for solving the multiple temporal and spatial parameters dynamic reliability. The results show that the proposed methods can estimate the multiple temporal and spatial parameters dynamic failure probability efficiently and accurately.
TOPICS: Reliability, Entropy, Event history analysis, Failure, Probability
research-article  
Jianxi Luo, Bowen Yan and Kristin Wood
J. Mech. Des   doi: 10.1115/1.4037680
Engineers and technology firms must continually explore new design opportunities and directions, to sustain or thrive in technology competition. However, related decisions are normally based on personal gut feeling or experiences. Although the analysis of user preferences and market trends may shed light on some design opportunities from a demand perspective, design opportunities are always conditioned or enabled by the technological capabilities of designers. Herein, we present a data-driven methodology for designers to analyze and identify what technologies they can design for the next, based on the analysis of the data on technologies. The methodology is based on the principle - what a designer can currently design condition or enable what it can design next. The core of the method is an empirically built network map of all known technologies, whose distances are quantified using more than 5 million patent records. On the map, one can position a designer according to the patents or technologies that they can design, and navigate technologies through near neighborhoods to far fields, to identify feasible or novel design opportunities and directions. Furthermore, we have integrated the technology space map, and various map-based functions for designer positioning, neighborhood search, path finding and knowledge discovery and learning, into a data-driven visual analytic system named InnoGPS. InnoGPS is a GPS for finding innovation positions and directions in the technology space, and conceived by analogy from the GPS that we use for positioning, neighborhood search and direction finding in the physical space.
TOPICS: Driverless cars, Design, Patents, Innovation, Preferences, Engineers, Space
research-article  
Feng Shi, Liuqing Chen, Ji Han and Peter R.N Childs
J. Mech. Des   doi: 10.1115/1.4037649
With the advent of the big-data era, massive information stored in electronic and digital forms on the internet become valuable resources for knowledge discovery in engineering design. Traditional document retrieval method based on document indexing focuses on retrieving individual documents related to the query, but is incapable of discovering the various associations between individual knowledge concepts. While, ontology-based technologies, which can extract the inherent relationships between concepts by using advanced text mining tools, can be applied to improve design information retrieval in the large-scale unstructured textual data environment. In this paper, we propose a data-driven ontology method consisting of semantic network construction and subsequent network analysis for design information retrieval. In the semantic network construction stage, an unsupervised learning algorithm combined with a web crawler is developed to automatically construct a semantic network by conducting simplified NLP and itemset mining techniques on massive raw textual data through both semantic and statistical levels. In the semantic network analysis stage, a new approach with two different retrieval behaviours is proposed by modelling probability and velocity layers on the semantic network. An engineering design case study shows the effectiveness of the method for retrieving useful and relevant knowledge concepts and providing feasible design solutions. The result also shows significant different retrieval behaviours of the probability layer and velocity layer, which indicates the potential capacity of the method in satisfying the various demands for different types of knowledge in engineering design activities.
TOPICS: Design, Network analysis, Text analytics, Engineering design, Construction, Ontologies, Information retrieval, Probability, Nonlinear programming, Modeling, Internet, Natural language processing, Mining, Indexing (Machining), Algorithms
research-article  
Vinjamuri Venkata Kamesh, Kuchibhotla Mallikarjuna Rao and Annambhotla Balaji Srinivasa Rao
J. Mech. Des   doi: 10.1115/1.4037628
Detection of isomorphism in planar and geared kinematic chains is an interesting area since many years. Enumeration of planar and geared kinematic chains becomes easy only when isomorphism problem is resolved effectively. Many researchers proposed algorithms based on topological characteristics or some coding which need lot of computations and comparisons. In this paper, a novel and simple algorithm is proposed based on graph theory by which elimination of isomorphic chains can be done very easily without any tedious calculations or comparisons. A new concept 'Net distance' is proposed based on the graph theory to be a quantitative measure to assess isomorphism in planar kinematic chains as well as geared kinematic chains. The proposed algorithm is applied on 9-link 2-degree of freedom (dof) distinct kinematic chains completely and results are presented in Appendix II. Algorithm is tested on examples from 8-link 1-dof, 10-link 1-dof, 12-link 1-dof and 15-link 4-dof planar kinematic chains (PKCs). The algorithm is also tested on 4, 6-link 1-dof geared kinematic chains (GKCs) to detect isomorphism. All the results are in agreement with the existing literature.
TOPICS: Kinematic chains, Algorithms, Chain, Computation
research-article  
Davood Farhadi Machekposhti, Nima Tolou and Justus Herder
J. Mech. Des   doi: 10.1115/1.4037629
This paper introduces a homokinetic coupling, a constant velocity universal joint (CV joint), which is fully compliant and potentially monolithic. The proposed compliant design can accommodate a high misalignment angle between the input and the output rotational axes. To guarantee a one-to-oneconstant velocity rotation transmission for all different misalignment angles, extra kinematic constraints are applied on well-known Double Hooke's universal joint. The influence of the extra constraints on degrees of freedom (DoF) of the mechanism is studied by means of screw theory. Furthermore, it was shown the mechanism is yet a one DoF linkage for rotation transmission and a two DoF rotational joint as all universal joints. The kinematic of the mechanism is studied and constant velocity conditions are identified. The Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model (PRBM) of the angled arrangement of the Double Hooke's universal joint is created and the input-output torque relationship is then studied. Different possible compliant configurations and design arrangement based on the PRBM model were discussed and illustrated. Moreover, One of the proposed compliant counterparts is dimensioned as a power transmission coupling for a high misalignment angle, up to 45 deg. Further, a prototype was manufactured for the experimental evaluation and it is shown that the results are consistent with the PRBM and the finite element modeling.
TOPICS: Kinematics, Torque, Rotation, Screws, Universal joints, Engineering prototypes, Linkages, Degrees of freedom, Design, Finite element analysis, Modeling
Design Innovation Paper  
Rami Alfattani and Craig Lusk
J. Mech. Des   doi: 10.1115/1.4037621
This paper presents a new Bistable Collapsible Compliant Mechanism (BCCM) that is utilized in a Lamina- Emergent Frustum. The mechanism is based on transforming a polygon spiral into spatial frustum shape using a mechanism composed of compliant links and joints that exhibits bistable behavior. A number of mechanism types (graphs) were considered to implement the shape-morphing spiral, including 4-bar, 6-bar, and 8-bar chains. Our design requirements permitted the selection of a particular 8-bar chain as the basis for the BCCM. Bistable behavior was added to the mechanism by introducing snap-through bistability as the mechanism morphs. Parametric CAD was used to perform the dimensional synthesis. The design was successfully prototyped. We anticipate that the mechanism may be useful in commercial small animal enclosures or as a frame for a solar still.
TOPICS: Compliant mechanisms, Chain, Design, Shapes, Computer-aided design, Solar stills
research-article  
Tim Wilschut, L.F.P. Etman, Jacobus E. Rooda and Ivo Adan
J. Mech. Des   doi: 10.1115/1.4037626
For decomposition and integration of systems one needs extensive knowledge of system structure. A Design Structure Matrix (DSM) model provides a simple, compact and visual representation of dependencies between system elements. By permuting the rows and columns of a DSM using a clustering algorithm, the underlying structure of a system can be revealed. In this paper, we present a new DSM clustering algorithm based upon Markov clustering, that is able to cope with the presence of 'bus' elements, returns multi-level clusters, is capable of clustering weighted, directed and undirected DSMs, and allows the user to control the cluster results by tuning only three input parameters. Comparison with two algorithms from the literature shows that the proposed algorithm provides clustering of similar quality at the expense of less CPU time.
TOPICS: Flow (Dynamics), Design, Algorithms
research-article  
Inayat Ullah, Dunbing Tang, Qi Wang and Leilei Yin
J. Mech. Des   doi: 10.1115/1.4037627
In today's environment, product family design (PFD) is a dominant strategy in the industry to meet the diversified design requirements. The prediction of change propagation in product family (PF) is a challenging task. Researchers have proposed numerous design change management methodologies, but they are restricted to a single artifact. This paper suggests a framework, which explores effective change propagation paths (CPPs) by considering the risk associated with design changes in the PF, with the aim to minimize the overall cost of redesign. The propagated risk, which would result in rework, is quantified in terms of change impact and propagation likelihood. Design structure matrix (DSM) based mathematical model and an algorithm are proposed to investigate the change propagation across the PF. Finally, to demonstrate the implementation of advanced mathematical model and algorithm, the PF of electric kettles is taken into consideration. The outcomes reveal that the proposed technique is appropriate for evaluating different CPPs in PF with additional information, i.e., the number of design elements and change steps involved in change propagation.
TOPICS: Design, Algorithms, Risk, Performance, Change management
research-article  
Zhinan Zhang, Ling Liu, W. Wei, Fei Tao, Tianmeng Li and Ang Liu
J. Mech. Des   doi: 10.1115/1.4037610
This paper presents a systematic function recommendation process (FRP) to recommend new functions to an existing product and service. Function plays a vital role in bridging intangible user needs to tangible product behaviors under constraints. It is imperative for manufacturers to continuously equip an existing product/service with exciting new functions. Traditionally, functions are mostly formulated by experienced designers and senior managers based on their subjective experience, knowledge, creativity, and even heuristics. Nevertheless, against the sweeping trend of information explosion, it is increasingly inefficient and unproductive for designers to manually formulate functions. In e-commerce, recommendation systems are ubiquitously used to recommend new products to users. In this study, the practically viable recommendation approaches are integrated with the theoretically sound design methodologies to serve a revolutionizing paradigm of recommending new functions to an existing product/service. The aim is to address the problem of how to estimate an unknown rating that a target user would give to a candidate function that is not carried by the target product/service yet. A systematic function recommendation process is prescribed, followed by a detailed case study. It is indicated that practically meaningful functional recommendations can indeed by generated through the proposed FRP.
TOPICS: Design, Fiber reinforced plastics, E-commerce, Explosions, Creativity
research-article  
Binyang Song and Jianxi Luo
J. Mech. Des   doi: 10.1115/1.4037613
Data-driven engineering designers often search for design precedents in the patent database to learn about relevant prior arts, seek design inspiration, or assess the novelty of their own new inventions. However, patent retrieval relevant to the design of a specific product or technology is often unstructured and unguided, and resultant patents do not sufficiently or accurately capture the prior design knowledge base. This paper proposes an iterative and heuristic methodology to exhaustively search for patents as precedents of the design of a specific technology or product for data-driven next design. The patent retrieval methodology integrates the mining of patent texts, citation relationships and inventor information to identify relevant patents; in particular, the search keyword set, citation network, and inventor set are expanded through the designer's heuristic learning from the patents identified in prior iterations. The method relaxes the requirement for initial search keywords while improving patent retrieval completeness and accuracy. We apply the method to identifying self-propelled spherical rolling robot patents. Furthermore, we present two approaches to further analyse and make sense of the retrieved patent data for exploring new spherical rolling robot design opportunities. Our research contributes to patent data-driven design.
TOPICS: Mining, Robots, Design, Patents, Databases, Inventions
research-article  
Sunghoon Lim and Conrad Tucker
J. Mech. Des   doi: 10.1115/1.4037612
The authors of this work present a model that reduces product ratings biases that are a result of varying degrees of customers' optimism/pessimism. Recently, large-scale customer reviews and numerical product ratings have served as substantial criteria for new customers who make their purchasing decisions through electronic word-of-mouth. However, due to differences between reviewers' rating criteria, customer ratings are often biased. For example, a 3-star rating can be considered low for an optimistic reviewer. On the other hand, the same 3-star rating can be considered high for a pessimistic reviewer. Many existing studies of online customer reviews overlook the significance of reviewers' rating histories and tendencies. Considering reviewers' rating histories and tendencies is significant for identifying unbiased customer ratings and true product quality, because each reviewer has different criteria for buying and rating products. The proposed customer rating analysis model adjusts product ratings in order to provide customers with more objective and accurate feedback. The authors propose an unsupervised model aimed at mitigating customer ratings based on rating histories and tendencies, instead of human-labeled training data. A case study involving real-world customer rating data from an electronic commerce company is used to validate the method.
TOPICS: Product quality, E-commerce, Feedback
Technical Brief  
Lei Zhang, Xuening Chu, Hansi Chen and Deyi Xue
J. Mech. Des   doi: 10.1115/1.4037475
In order to overcome the problems due to subjective judgements in the traditional requirement acquisition techniques based on the "users' voices" such as interviews, questionnaires, and customer online reviews and discussions, a new approach is developed in this research to identify the performance requirements for design of smartphones based on analysis of the collected operating data. The actual smartphone usage data are collected considering two typical cases of smartphones with sufficient performance and insufficient performance. First, distribution fitting and curve fitting methods are used to obtain the performance distributions for the two typical cases. Based on the performance distribution, the interval of required performance is determined, and the customer satisfaction function (CSF) is constructed using the Sigmoid-like function. Based on the CSF, the customer required performance can be obtained. The cost-effective point for the satisfaction improvement is determined to get a reasonable degree for customer requirement satisfaction. A case study is conducted to collect the CPU utilization data of smartphones using an in-house developed Smart Monitor system, and to identify the customer requirements on the CPU performance based on the developed new approach.
TOPICS: Design, Fittings, Curve fitting

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